Types of Glaucoma
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) - The most common form of glaucoma. Typically caused by an increase of intra-ocular pressure (IOP) that damages the retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve.
Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma - This unique form of glaucoma is more prevalent in myopic (nearsighted) individuals. In pigment dispersion glaucoma or syndrome (PDS), the pigment from the iris is slowly removed and get stuck in the drainage structure of the eye known as the trabecular meshwork. This can clog up the drainage and raise a patient's IOP.
Exfoliation Glaucoma / Syndrome - Like Pigment Dispersion Syndrome, Exfoliation Syndrome is a clogging of the drainage structure. The source however is from the outer layer of cells on the lens of your eye that are released due to an underlying heridatory dystrophy.
Traumatic Glaucoma - Trauma to the eye, either blunt trauma or penetrating injury, can result in glaucoma in the near future, or years later. Bleeding near the angle of the eye (hyphema) may cause an increase of IOP, also scarring of the drainage structures (angle recession) can lead to poor drainage and subsequently increased IOP as well.
Neovascular Glaucoma (NVG)- The formation of new blood vessels from the iris (rebeosis) and grown into the angle of the eye. These abnormal vessels can constrict and clog the eye's drainage. NVG is associated with other underlying causes such as very severe diabetes. This form of glaucoma is very difficult to treat, and is sometimes associated with an "end-stage glaucoma".
Angle Closure Glaucoma (ACG) - This form of glaucoma, also called narrow angle glaucoma, occurs when the eye's angle becomes blocked and fluid is prohibited to drain. The blockage, which can be incited by many factors, typically comes from the iris which crowds the angle when it dilates under dark conditions. This can inhibit an inflammatory response and cause the iris to become "stuck" in this position. When this happens, called Acute Angle Closure, it can be very painful, and should be treated as soon as possible. How to treat an acute angle closure?
Normal Tension Glaucoma (NTG) - NTG is defined as glaucoma damage with an IOP less than 21mmHG. NTG is most prevalent in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease. Commonly, many patients with NTG have a history of low blood pressure (hypotension). Others may have a history of anemia, or massive blood loss from an accident or a blood transfusion. Some evidence points to patients of high myopia (nearsightedness) showing greater risk for NTG than regular myopic patients.
Steroid Induced Glaucoma - Long term use of corticosteroids have been proven to cause an elevation in IOP. Steroids are used in drop form to treat many inflammatory eye disorders, but are also used in systemic form to treat many conditions such as asthma to arthritis. Although the benefits typically outweigh the risks, it is important to notify your optometrist if you are taking this kind of medication.
Pediatric Glaucoma - there are three forms of Pediatric Glaucoma; Congenital (at birth), Infantile (presents within the first three years), and Juvenile (age three to young adulthood). Pediatric Glaucoma is typically genetic, and is sometimes associated with symptoms or signs such as large appearing eyes, excessive tearing, light sensitivity and/or cloudy appearing eyes. When to have your kids eyes checked.
Primary Care of the Glaucomas by Murry Fingeret and Thomas L. Lewis . 2001